Lecture Notes in Education
Psychology and Public Media

Non-Intelligence Influencing Factors on Academic Performance of Primary School Students


Lisha Wang * 1

1 Chengdu University

Corresponding Author

Lisha Wang


family environment, elementary students, personal factors, academic achievement


After entering the elementary school, children begin to conduct purposive and systematic learning activities under the guidance of teachers. The objective evaluation standard of learning activities, that is, the academic performance, is also receiving more and more attention. This research explores the non-intelligence factors that affect the academic performance of primary school students, mainly focusing on their personal factors and family factors. Among the personal factors, self-regulation, motivation, personality and fitness all have significant impacts on academic achievement. In terms of family factors, parental involvement, family emotional environment and socioeconomic status are all related to the academic performance of primary school students.


Lisha Wang. Non-Intelligence Influencing Factors on Academic Performance of Primary School Students. LNEP (2021) LNEP ICEIPI 2021: 28-34. DOI: 10.54254/lnep.iceipi.2021158.


[1]: Laidra, K., Pullmann, H. and Allik, J. (2007). Personality and intelligence as predictors of academic achievement: A cross-sectional study from elementary to secondary school. Personality and individual differences , 42 (3), 441- 451.

[2]: Day, S. L. and Connor, C. M. (2017). Examining the relations between self-regulation and achievement in third￾grade students. Assessment for effective intervention, 42(2), 97-109.

[3]: Gathercole, S. E. and Pickering, S. J. (2000). Working memory defifi cits in children with low achievements in the national curriculum at 7 years of age. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 70, 177–194.

[4]: Blair, C. and Razza, R. P. (2007). Relating effortful control, executive function, and false belief understanding to emerging math and literacy ability in kindergarten. Child Development, 78, 647–663.

[5]: Day, S. L., Connor, C. M. and McClelland, M. M. (2015). Children's behavioral regulation and literacy: The impact of the first grade classroom environment. Journal of school psychology , 53 (5), 409-428.

[6]: Vitaro, F., Brendgen, M., Larose, S. and Trembaly, R. E. (2005). Kindergarten disruptive behaviors, protective factors, and educational achievement by early adulthood. Journal of educational psychology , 97 (4), 617.

[7]: Lemos, M. S. and Veríssimo, L. (2014). The relationships between intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and achievement, along elementary school. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences , 112 , 930-938.

[8]: Bateman, T. S. and Crant, J. M. (august, 2003). Revisiting Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation. Paper presented at: Meeting of the Academy of Management, Seattle, WA.

[9]: Weber, H. S., Lu, L., Shi, J. and Spinath, F. M. (2013). The roles of cognitive and motivational predictors in explaining school achievement in elementary school. Learning and Individual Differences , 25 , 85-92.

[10]: McCrae, R. R. and John, O. P. (1992). An introduction to the five‐factor model and its applications. Journal of Personality, 60(2), 175–215.

[11]: Laidra, K., Pullmann, H. and Allik, J. (2007). Personality and intelligence as predictors of academic achievement: A cross-sectional study from elementary to secondary school.Personality and individual differences , 42 (3), 441- 451.

[12]: De Raad, B. and Schouwenburg, H. C. (1996). Personality in learning and education: A review. European Journal of personality , 10 (5), 303-336.

[13]: Nguyen, N. T., Allen, L. C. and Fraccastoro, K. (2005). Personality predicts academic performance: Exploring the moderating role of gender. Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management , 27 (1), 105-117.

[14]: Hicks, B. M., Johnson, W., Iacono, W. G. and McGue, M. (2008). Moderating effects of personality on the genetic and environmental influences of school grades helps to explain sex differences in scholastic achievement. European Journal of Personality: Published for the European Association of Personality Psychology, 22 (3), 247-268.

[15]: Huyge, E., Van Maele, D. and Van Houtte, M. (2015). Does students' machismo fit in school? Clarifying the implications of traditional gender role ideology for school belonging. Gender and Education , 27 (1), 1-18.

[16]: Donnelly, J. E., Hillman, C. H., Castelli, D., Etnier, J. L., Lee, S., Tomporowski, P., ... and Szabo-Reed, A. N. (2016). Physical activity, fitness, cognitive function, and academic achievement in children: a systematic review. Medicine and science in sports and exercise , 48 (6), 1197.

[17]: Fisher, A., Boyle, J. M., Paton, J. Y., Tomporowski, P., Watson, C., McColl, J. H. and Reilly, J. J. (2011). Effects of a physical education intervention on cognitive function in young children: randomized controlled pilot study. BMC pediatrics , 11 (1), 97.

[18]: Davis, C. L., Tomporowski, P. D., McDowell, J. E., Austin, B. P., Miller, P. H., Yanasak, N. E., ... and Naglieri, J. A. (2011). Exercise improves executive function and achievement and alters brain activation in overweight children: a randomized, controlled trial. Health psychology , 30 (1), 91.

[19]: Hill, N. E. and Tyson, D. F. (2009). Parental involvement in middle school: a meta-analytic assessment of the strategies that promote achievement. Developmental psychology, 45(3), 740.

[20]: Boonk, L., Gijselaers, H. J., Ritzen, H. and Brand-Gruwel, S. (2018). A review of the relationship between parental involvement indicators and academic achievement.Educational Research Review , 24 , 10-30.

[21]: Gonida, E. N. and Cortina, K. S. (2014). Parental involvement in homework: Relations with parent and student achievement‐related motivational beliefs and achievement. British Journal of Educational Psychology , 84 (3), 376- 396.

[22]: Moroni, S., Dumont, H., Trautwein, U., Niggli, A. and Baeriswyl, F. (2015). The need to distinguish between quantity and quality in research on parental involvement: The example of parental help with homework. The Journal of Educational Research , 108 (5), 417-431.

[23]: Dearing, E., Kreider, H., Simpkins, S. and Weiss, H. B. (2006). Family involvement in school and low-income children's literacy: Longitudinal associations between and within families. Journal of Educational Psychology , 98 (4), 653.

[24]: Schulting, A. B., Malone, P. S. and Dodge, K. A. (2005). The effect of school-based kindergarten transition policies and practices on child academic outcomes. Developmental psychology , 41 (6), 860.

[25]: Dove, M. K., Neuharth-Pritchett, S., Wright, D. W. and Wallinga, C. (2015). Parental involvement routines and former Head Start children’s literacy outcomes. Journal of Research in Childhood Education , 29 (2), 173-186.

[26]: Bodovski, K. and Youn, M. J. (2010). Love, discipline and elementary school achievement: The role of family emotional climate. Social Science Research, 39 (4), 585-595.

[27]: Duncan, G. J., Ziol‐Guest, K. M. and Kalil, A. (2010). Early‐childhood poverty and adult attainment, behavior, and health.Child development , 81 (1), 306-325.

[28]: Sanbonmatsu, L., Kling, J. R., Duncan, G. J. and Brooks-Gunn, J. (2006). Neighborhoods and academic achievement results from the Moving to Opportunity experiment. Journal of Human resources , 41 (4), 649-691.

[29]: Crosnoe, R., Morrison, F., Burchinal, M., Pianta, R., Keating, D., Friedman, S. L. and Clarke-Stewart, K. A. (2010). Instruction, teacher–student relations, and math achievement trajectories in elementary school. Journal of educational psychology , 102 (2), 407.

[30]: VanSchyndel, S. K., Eisenberg, N., Valiente, C. and Spinrad, T. L. (2017). Relations from temperamental approach reactivity and effortful control to academic achievement and peer relations in early elementary school. Journal of Research in Personality , 67 , 15-26.

Copyright © 2021 Eliwise Academy. Unless Otherwise Stated