Lecture Notes in Education
Psychology and Public Media

Risk Factors for Postpartum Depression During COVID-19

Authors

Jingzhe Guo * 1 , Zhaojie Song 2

1 School of public health, Xi'an Jiaotong University

2 School of Public Health and Management, Chongqing Medical University

Corresponding Author

Jingzhe Guo

Keywords

postpartum depression, logistics regression analysis, risk factors, COVID-19

Abstract

Many social problems have been highlighted by COVID-19. The perinatal mental health of pregnant women is closely related to the newborn's health and the stability and harmony of family. However, there are few studies on postpartum depression in China. In this study, single-factor analysis and multivariate logistics regression analysis will be used to explore the high-risk factors of postpartum depression in COVID-19.From October 2020 to February 2021, the basic information of 388 puerperas from two cities in central and Northwest China, Xinxiang and Xi'an, were collected, including occupation, age, education, religious belief, nationality, partner companion time during pregnancy, major life-influenced events in the past six months, cognition of COVID-19, and gender and health of the newborn. Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS) was used for psychological evaluation. SPSS 13.0 was used for univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. According to the Edinburgh Depression Scale, 45 cases were classified into the depression group (score ≥ 13), and 343 cases were classified into the normal group (score < 13).The statistical results of general and clinical data showed that there was no significant correlation between occupation, nationality, weekly accompanying time, or age and postpartum depression (P > 0.05). In logistic multivariate regression analysis, the risk of postpartum depression in pregnant women with neonatal diseases was about 2.23 times higher than that of healthy pregnant women (OR = 2.233). When pregnant women believed that COVID-19 had a negative impact on the health of their newborns, their risk of postpartum depression was 3.31 times higher than that of perinatal women who did not(OR=3.314). This study explored the risk factors of postpartum depression in COVID-19, hoping to provide a method for prevention and treatment.

Citation

Jingzhe Guo, Zhaojie Song. Risk Factors for Postpartum Depression During COVID-19. LNEP (2021) LNEP ICEIPI 2021: 152-162. DOI: 10.54254/lnep.iceipi.2021190.

References

[1]: Yu X, Sun X, Cui P, Pan H, Lin S, Han R, Jiang C, Fang Q, Kong D, Zhu Y, Zheng Y, Gong X, Xiao W, Mao S, Jin B, Wu H, Fu C. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 333 confirmed cases with coronavirus disease 2019 in Shanghai, China. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2020 Jul;67(4):1697-1707. doi: 10.1111/tbed.13604. Epub 2020 May 13. PMID: 32351037; PMCID: PMC7267440.

[2]: Almeida M, Shrestha AD, Stojanac D, Miller LJ. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on women's mental health. Arch Womens Ment Health. 2020 Dec;23(6):741-748. doi: 10.1007/s00737-020-01092-2. Epub 2020 Dec 1. PMID: 33263142; PMCID: PMC7707813.

[3]: Batt MM, Duffy KA, Novick AM, Metcalf CA, Epperson CN. Is Postpartum Depression Different From Depression Occurring Outside of the Perinatal Period? A Review of the Evidence. Focus (Am Psychiatr Publ). 2020 Apr;18(2):106-119. doi: 10.1176/appi.focus.20190045. Epub 2020 Apr 23. PMID: 33162848; PMCID: PMC7587887.

[4]: Almond P. Postnatal depression: a global public health perspective. Perspect Public Health. 2009 Sep;129(5):221- 7. doi: 10.1177/1757913909343882. PMID: 19788165.

[5]: Dennis, C. L., Coglan, M., & Vigod, S. (2013). Can we identify mothers at-risk for postpartum anxiety in the immediate postpartum period using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory? Journal of Affective Disorders, 150, 1217– 1220

[6]: Bener, A., Gerber, L. M., & Sheikh, J. (2012). Prevalence Of psychiatric disorders and associated risk factors in women during their postpartum period: A major public health problem and global comparison. International Journal of Women’s Health, 4, 191–200.

[7]: Tohotoa, J., Maycock, B., Hauck, Y. L., Dhaliwal, S., Howat, P., et al. (2012). Can father inclusive practice reduce paternal postnatal anxiety? A repeated measures cohort study using the hospital anxiety and depression scale. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 12, 75–94.

[8]: Mirzadeh M, Khedmat L. Pregnant women in the exposure to COVID-19 infection outbreak: the unseen risk factors and preventive healthcare patterns. J Matern Neonatal Med. 2020;7:1–2.

[9]: Shen Weiwei, Zhang Haiqin, Lai Shiping, Fei Aimei. Int J Clin Immunol, 2012,42(1):62-65. (in Chinese with English abstract) [J]. Int J Clin Immunol, 2012,42(1):62-65.

[10]: Zhang Meng, Zhang Dongying, Li Yilin, Li Rui, Li Ying, Bo Haixin. Investigation on mental health status of pregnant women during COVID-19 epidemic in China [J]. Journal of Nursing, 2021,06:81-84.

[11]: FU Wen-jun, ZHOU Cai-feng, ZHANG Yuan-yuan, Miyoko Kume. (2011).Study of postpartum depression state and its related factors among Chinese and Japanese parturients.Chinese Journal of Practical Nursing.,25,50-53.

[12]: Małus A, Szyluk J, Galińska-Skok B, Konarzewska B. Incidence of postpartum depression and couple relationship quality. Psychiatr Pol. 2016 Dec 23;50(6):1135-1146. English, Polish. doi: 10.12740/PP/61569. PMID: 28211552.

[13]: Ngai FW, Ngu SF. Family sense of coherence and family and marital functioning across the perinatal period. Sex Reprod Healthc. 2016 Mar;7:33-7. doi: 10.1016/j.srhc.2015.11.001. Epub 2015 Nov 11. PMID: 26826043.

Copyright © 2021 Eliwise Academy. Unless Otherwise Stated